SYLLABUS – MP PAHUNT BOTANY

Structure organisation of cell, cell theory . Light and electron microscopic view of cells. structure and functions of cell organalles : nucleous mitochondria , Chloroplast, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex lysosome, micro bodies, microfilaments ribonsomes. Centrioles and plasmids, Eukaryotic chromosome (morphology) cell and plasma membrane. Difference between cell and animal division, cell cycle significance of mitosisand meiosis. Mendel’s law of inheritance, monohyobrid and dihybrid cross; linage and crossing over of genetic material DNA relication, genetic code transcription and gene regultion. Difference between prokaryote and eukaryotes: structure reproduction and economic importance of viruses Mycoplasma, Bacteriophage, cynobacteria (Nostoc) and bacteria. Five kingdom classification binomial nomenclature: external morophology and life cycle of spirogyra mucor, funaria selaginella and pinus . Elementary knowledge of microsporogenesis, megasporongenesis.Fertilization endosperm and embroyo development in angiosperms.Tissue and tissue systems, meristematic and permanent tissue, mineral nutrition essential elements and their functions: uptake of minerals transport of water and solutes. Transpiration photosynthesis and respiration: importance, mechanism and factors affecting these processess: photorespiration. Enzymes and growth hormones with reference to their classification, chemical nature, mode of action importance. Elementary idea of photoperiodism and phytochrome. Ecosystem – structure and function, major ecosystems i.e lake and forest; food chain., food web and energy flow, ecological crises role of man in polluting environment – air water and soil. Role of plants in human welfare: a general knowledge of plant products of economic value drugs, fibers, cereals.Wheat and rice, pulses(gram), oil seeds(ground nut), sugarcane, coal and petroleum, Food preservation methods and importance. Principle of plant breeding and its role in improvement of crops, biotechnology, scope and importance in agriculture and industries manufacture of cheese. Yoghurt alcohol antibiotics.

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